Papers & Articles

Veli-Pekka Parkkinen, Christian Wallmann, Michael Wilde, Brendan Clarke, Phyllis Illari, Michael P. Kelly, Charles Norell, Federica Russo, Beth Shaw and Jon Williamson: ‘Evaluating Evidence of Mechanisms in Medicine: Principles and Procedures‘. Springer, 2018.

The book is available open access here. PDF. Print copies are available here.

Online appendices are available here (click on the image). PDF

Tools for evaluating evidence of mechanisms are available here (PDF).

Comments and feedback gratefully appreciated.


These two publications provide an introduction to the EBM+ approach:

Clarke B, Gillies D, Illari P, Russo F and Williamson J (2014) ‘Mechanisms and the Evidence Hierarchy’, Topoi 33(2): 339-360.

Clarke B, Gillies D, Illari P, Russo F and Williamson J. (2013) ‘The evidence that evidence-based medicine omits’, Preventative Medicine 57: 745-747.


Outputs of the Evaluating evidence in medicine research project are listed here.


Some other relevant reading:

Cartwright N and Hardie, J (2012) Evidence Based Policy: A Practical Guide to Doing it Better. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Illari P and Russo F. (2014) ‘Introduction: Evidence and Causality in the Sciences’, Topoi, 33: 293.

Illari P. (2014) Causality: Philosophical Theory meets Scientific Practice. Oxford University Press.

Kelly, M.P, Kelly, R., Russo, F. (2014) The integration of social, behavioural and biological mechanisms in models of pathogenesis, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine; 57: 308-28.

Federica Russo and Jon Williamson: Epistemic causality and evidence-based medicine, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33(4):563-582, 2011.

Russo F and Williamson J (2007)  ‘Interpreting causality in the health sciences’International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21(2): 157-170.