Papers & Articles

Veli-Pekka Parkkinen, Christian Wallmann, Michael Wilde, Brendan Clarke, Phyllis Illari, Michael P. Kelly, Federica Russo, Beth Shaw and Jon Williamson: Evaluating Evidence of Mechanisms in Medicine: Principles and Procedures. Version 0.5. A brief overview of the approach is available here.

This is a draft version: please do not quote. Comments and feedback gratefully appreciated.


These two publications provide an introduction to the EBM+ approach:


Clarke B, Gillies D, Illari P, Russo F and Williamson J (2014) ‘Mechanisms and the Evidence Hierarchy’, Topoi 33(2): 339-360.


Clarke B, Gillies D, Illari P, Russo F and Williamson J. (2013) ‘The evidence that evidence-based medicine omits’, Preventative Medicine 57: 745-747.


Cartwright N and Hardie, J (2012) Evidence Based Policy: A Practical Guide to Doing it Better. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Clarke B and Russo F. (2017) Causation in medicine. In Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Edited by J. Marcum. Bloomsbury, 297-322.


Iliadis A. and Russo F. (2016) Critical data studies: An introduction. Big Data & Society, July-December 2016, 1-7.


Clarke B. and Russo F. (Forthcoming). ‘Mechanisms in medicine. In Glennan S. and Illari P. (eds) Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms. Routledge.


Russo F. and Vineis P. (2017) ‘Opportunities and challenges of molecular epidemiology. In G. Boniolo and M. J. Nathan (eds) Philosophy of Molecular Medicine: Foundational Issues in Research and Practice. Routledge.


Russo F. (2015) ‘Causation and correlation in medical sciences: theoretical problems’. In T. Schramme and S. Edwards (eds.) Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine.


Russo F. (2015) Statistical generalizations in epidemiology: philosophical analysis. In T. Schramme and S. Edwards (eds.). Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine.


Russo, F & Kelly, M. (2016) ‘Causal narratives in public health: The difference between mechanisms of aetiology and mechanisms of prevention in non-communicable disease’. Sociology of Health and Illness.


Dragulinescu, S (2016) ‘Inference to the best explanation and mechanisms in medicine’Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37:211–232.


Illari P and Russo F. (2014) ‘Introduction: Evidence and Causality in the Sciences’, Topoi, 33: 293.


Illari P. (2014) Causality: Philosophical Theory meets Scientific Practice. Oxford University Press.


Vineis, P., Illari, P & Russo, F (2017) ‘Causality in Cancer Research: A journey through models in molecular epidemiology and their philosophical intepretation’. Emerging themes in Epidemiology. 14: 7. DOI 10.1186/s12982-017-0061-7


Kelly, M.P, Kelly, R., Russo, F. (2014) The integration of social, behavioural and biological mechanisms in models of pathogenesis, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine; 57: 308-28.


Kelly, M.P.., Heath, I., Howick, J., Greenhalgh, T. (2015) The importance of values in evidence-based medicine, BMC Medical Ethics; BMC Medical Ethics. 2015, 16:69. DOI: 10.1186/s12910-015-0063-3  URL: 


Kelly, M.P. (2015) On epistemological and ontological incommensurability in modelling behaviour change. In Christmas, S., Michie, S., West, R.  (eds)  Thinking about behaviour change: an interdisciplinary dialogue, London: Silverback.

 Kelly M, Kelly R and Russo F (2015) ‘The integration of social, behavioural and biological mechanisms in models of pathogenesisPerspectives in Biology and Medicine 57: 308-28.


Kelly, M.P. & Barker, M. (2016) Why is changing health related behaviour so difficult? Public Health, 136: 109-116


Kelly, M.P. (2016) Understanding the mechanisms underpinning health inequalities: lessons from economics. Global Health Promotion; 23: 3-5.

Kelly M.P. & Kelly, R.S. (2017) Quantifying social influences throughout the life course: action, structure and ‘omics’, in, (eds) Meloni, M., Cromby, J., Fitzgerald, P., Lloyd, S., Handbook of Biology and Society, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Marteau, T.M., Hollands, G.J., Kelly, M.P. (2015) Changing population behavior and reducing health disparities: Exploring the potential of “choice architecture” interventions, in Kaplan, RM, Spittel, M, & David, DH. (eds).  Population Health: Behavioral and Social Science Insights, AHRQ Publication No. 15-0002. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institutes of Health. pp105- 126.


Michie, S Carey, R., Johnston, M, Rothman, A., de Bruin, M., Kelly, M.P., Connell, L. (2016)  From theory-inspired to theory-based interventions: A protocol for developing and testing a methodology for linking behaviour change techniques to theoretical mechanisms of action, Annals of Behavioral Medicine; doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9816-6.

Osimani B. and Russo F. (2016) Bayesianisme objectif et principe de précaution. In Drouet I. (eds), Les approches et méthodes bayésiennes. Matériologiques.

Russo F. (2015). ‘Book review. A pluralist account of causality. Peter V. Rabins: The why of things: Causality in medicine, science, and life. Columbia University Press. Metascience.


Parkkinen V (2016) Robustness and evidence of mechanisms in early experimental atherosclerosis researchStudies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 60:44-55.


Russo F and Williamson J (2007)  ‘Interpreting causality in the health sciences’International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21(2): 157-170.


Sozudoğru, E. and Clarke, B. (Forthcoming) ‘Uncertainty in drug discovery: strategies, heuristics and technologies. In Osimani, B. (ed.) Uncertainty in Pharmacology. Pickering & Chatto.


Szreter, S., Kinmonth, A.L., Kriznik, N.M., Kelly, M.P. (2016) Health and welfare as a burden on the state? The dangers of forgetting history, The Lancet, 388: 2734-35.


Michael Wilde & Jon Williamson: Models in medicine, in H. Kincaid, J. Simon & M. Solomon (eds), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine. Routledge, pp. 271-284, 2016.  ISBN: 978-1-13-884679-1


Michael Wilde & Jon Williamson: Evidence and Epistemic Causality, in A. von Eye & W. Wiedermann (eds), Statistics and Causality: methods for applied empirical research, pp. 31-41. Wiley, 2016.   ISBN: 978-1-118-94704-3


Christian Wallmann & Jon Williamson: Four approaches to the reference class problem, in Gábor Hofer-Szabó & Leszek Wroński (eds), Making it Formally Explicit: Probability, Causality and Indeterminism, Springer, 2017, pp. 61-81.  ISBN 978-3-319-55486-0


Parkkinen V., Russo F., and Wallmann C.:  Scientific disagreement and evidential pluralism: Lessons from the studies on hypercholesterolemia . Humana Mente, 2017 (in press).


Wallmann C.: A Bayesian solution to the conflict of narrowness and precision in direct inference.  Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 2017 (in press).